No, the inode thingy is only true for 0.2.4.x builds.
I’m not too familiar with the windows builds – what exactly changes when you run it in debug mode?
You can always set the debuglevel to 9 for maximum verbosity, regardless of any other options.
I suggest you delete/move your songs.db file, set the debuglevel to 9 and fire it up in normal mode. Then check the log for hints.
If i recall correctly firefly is run as a windows service, and that would imply permission issues. “local system” doesn’t have access to any shares whatsoever by default.