Well, gentoo is about as miminum as it gets. And it can be installed with just three commands! 😮 *SCNR* 😆
In all seriousness though, Ubuntu installs a full blown Gnome desktop too, and thats probably not what you want. AFAIK there aren’t much options, as ubuntu is meant to be human-friendly. Debian wouldn’t be far from that then, and with Debian you definetly can chose to run console only.
At this point I say it doesn’t matter much, since most of the distros come with coretuils and all those famous command line tools, anyway.